The Benefits of a Wooden Fence

A wooden fence is a popular choice for homeowners because it offers a variety of benefits. Whether you choose a simple picket fence or a lattice topper, there are several ways to customize your wood fence’s look.

A kickboard can help protect against ground-level moisture exposure, preventing the lower portion of your wooden fence from rotting and inviting pests. It can also add a polished finish to your fence. Visit to learn more.

Wood fences are a great choice for privacy. They can be constructed from a variety of materials, but wood is generally the best option for a privacy fence. It is relatively inexpensive and can be stained or painted for a variety of different looks. Additionally, it can be treated to withstand weather and other outdoor elements. Wood fences are also attractive and can help to add value to your home.

One of the most popular types of wooden fences is a traditional vertical privacy fence. These fences feature tightly-spaced vertical pickets and no gaps between them, ensuring that you can enjoy your private yard without being seen by neighbors or passersby. The top of the fence can be flat for a simple look or styled into a decorative design to enhance your property’s curb appeal.

Another way to increase your privacy is by adding landscaping to your backyard. Planting trees and shrubs can create a natural barrier that will keep you and your neighbors from seeing each other’s homes. Using trellises with climbing plants can further boost your privacy and create a beautiful garden. You can also use lattice privacy screens to add an aesthetic element to your privacy fence.

If you are looking for an even more private option, consider a board-on-board fence. This fence type is air-tight, meaning that light cannot pass through it. It is perfect for front yards and can provide a great first impression to your neighbors.

Other options for privacy fencing include a shadow box fence, a panel-on-panel fence, and a picture frame fence. Each of these fences uses a slightly different technique to conceal the bottom of the fence from view. While these fences offer great privacy, they can be costly and require a lot of maintenance.


Wooden fences can be built to a variety of heights, which can help keep children and pets safe by creating an effective barrier that is difficult to climb over. They can also be constructed to include gates and doorways, making them more attractive than many other types of fencing and helping deter criminals. If you choose to install a wooden fence, it is important to ensure that it is treated against weather, rot, bugs and termites. This will add to the cost of the fence, but it will be well worth the investment if it helps keep your family and possessions safe.

A good way to add security to your wooden fence is to cover it with anti-climb paint. This paint never dries and is slippery, which makes it impossible to climb over the slats of your fence. Commercial buildings and government facilities often use this type of paint on their fences, and it can be a great way to prevent crime. When using this technique, however, it is important to make sure that the paint is only applied to the top of the slats. If you decide to use this method, it is also a good idea to post a sign that warns people about the dangers of climbing over your fence.

Another effective security measure for your wooden fence is to grow thorny plants around it. This will deter criminals because it is difficult to walk through a thorny bush or climb over a thorny trellis without getting hurt. In addition, a thorny plant will deter small animals and insects from entering your property.

After your wooden fence is installed, it is a good idea to let it rest and dry for several weeks before staining and sealing it. The wood that is used in a new fence will have been treated with chemicals and a mill glaze to protect it from damage during transportation and installation, and these materials can block the stain and sealant from fully penetrating the wood. This can lead to faster deterioration of your wooden fence, so it is crucial that you allow the wood time to completely dry before applying these products.


Wood fences are incredibly durable when they’re properly cared for and installed. They can last for decades or longer compared to other fencing materials such as vinyl and aluminum. However, the lifespan of a wooden fence depends on a number of factors. These include the species of wood, weather conditions, maintenance practices, and installation quality. Regular staining and painting can also help prolong the life of a wooden fence.

The type of wood used in a wooden fence is crucial to its durability. Contractors generally prefer to use cedar, spruce, and redwood because they’re long-lasting and more resistant to the elements. Fences made with these types of wood are often more expensive than those made from pine, but they’re more visually appealing and will last much longer.

In order to make a wood fence more durable, contractors should always use pressure-treated lumber. This is because the posts, which touch the ground, need to be treated to resist water damage and insect infestation. However, the pickets and rails of a wooden fence don’t require treatment because they’re not directly exposed to the elements.

To protect a wooden fence from moisture and insect damage, it’s important to regularly clean and inspect it. This will help keep moss, mildew, and mold growth to a minimum. It’s also a good idea to apply a water-repellent stain or sealant every few years. This will limit the amount of moisture and UV rays that reach the wood, which can cause it to rot or fade over time.

Another way to make a wooden fence more durable is to add a lattice top, which is a decorative wood structure that’s placed over the pickets and boards of the fence. The lattice topper can be crafted from the same material as the fence or a different one for visual contrast. It can be a great way to add some extra privacy to a property without blocking any views.

Adding a concrete spur to each post can make it more sturdy, and sandbags can help prevent soil erosion that can damage the base of the fence. Lastly, fence owners should inspect the condition of their wooden fence on a regular basis and replace any rotting or damaged boards as soon as possible. This will ensure the longevity of the wood and protect the safety and security of your home or business.


Wood fences can add a touch of elegance to any home. They can be customized with paint and stain to create a design that complements your landscape, architectural style, and property line. Wooden fences can also be augmented with decorative accents like metal panels, geometric patterns, or artistic designs to elevate their aesthetic and turn them into more of a statement piece that defines your outdoor living space.

Cedar is one of the most popular choices for wood fences because of its premium aesthetic. It is also one of the most durable and long-lasting options, ensuring that your fence will last for years to come. Cedar is a hard, strong, and dense type of wood that provides a beautiful and distinctive look. Its coloration varies from a pale green to a silvery gray and can be enhanced by natural oils.

Another common choice for wood fences is pine. It is often used to construct classic stockade, dog-ear, and shadow-box styles because of its durability and affordability. This soft, strong wood is less likely to shrink than other types of wood and offers a range of visual textures that can be improved with staining and painting.

Other options for a wooden fence include cypress and oakwood. Cypress is a relatively lightweight softwood that has a lighter color and grain pattern than most hardwoods. It is more resilient than most other softwoods, making it a good choice for use in harsh weather conditions. It is also resistant to insects and fungi, which makes it a great choice for use in wood fences that will be exposed to the elements.

Oakwood is a very attractive wood that has a noticeable wavy texture that accentuates its natural beauty. Its light color features a hint of golden amber when finished. When properly maintained, this type of wooden fence can last for centuries.

When installing a wooden fence, it is important to keep in mind that the finished side of the wood will be visible to neighbors and passersby. As such, it is a good idea to consider your neighbors’ aesthetic preferences before you decide on a fencing material and layout. It is also a good idea to check with your neighbors before beginning construction to ensure that you are not violating any property lines or creating any concerns.

What Does it Take to Be an Exterminator?

Exterminators are professionals who help customers to eradicate pests such as ants, cockroaches and bed bugs. They use a range of treatment methods including chemical treatments and traps.

Before starting the process of treating a home for pests, they conduct a thorough inspection. This includes identifying the type and extent of the infestation and assessing any damage caused by the pests. Contact Pest Control Bakersfield CA now!

An exterminator is a specialist who is trained to prevent and control pest infestations in homes, buildings and other environments. He may use chemical treatments, traps and other methods to remove the pests from a structure. He is also likely to recommend other measures that can be taken to prevent future pest infestations, such as improving sanitation or sealing cracks in walls and windows.

When a customer calls in an exterminator, the first thing an experienced technician will do is inspect the property. This will include checking the interior and exterior of the property for signs of pests, such as cockroach droppings or fleas. The technician will then take a closer look at the area, pulling appliances away from the wall and checking behind them, for example, to find out where the pests are hiding.

Once the inspection has been completed, the exterminator will then create a treatment plan. Depending on the type of pest, this will usually involve spraying chemicals in the affected areas, but it can also include baits and other non-chemical methods. The exterminator will then advise the customer of his plan, going into as much detail as he thinks appropriate.

One of the most important skills an exterminator has is listening. He must understand how a customer uses their home or office on a daily basis, so that he can determine where additional pests may be hiding. He should also be able to explain the treatment plan in an easy to understand way.

The job of an exterminator can be dangerous, especially when he is dealing with poisons and other harmful substances. In order to protect himself, he should wear protective equipment, including masks and gloves. Using protective equipment will also help to protect the exterminator from any accidental splashes or spillages.

Occasionally, the duties of an exterminator will include more manual work, such as digging or drilling holes to gain access to infested areas in a building. He will also need to prepare and apply pesticides, and he may need to clear out blocked drains or clogged gutters in order to access the affected areas. Depending on the type of pest, the exterminator may also need to build barriers or traps around a building.

Education and Training Requirements

In order to work as an exterminator, you will need to meet a number of educational and training requirements. These requirements vary by state, but generally include completing pest control training programs and passing relevant exams. You will also need to obtain a license and certification in your state. Licensing and certification are important because working with pesticides can be dangerous. In addition, you will need to be able to follow proper safety procedures and communicate effectively with your clients.

While a high school diploma is sufficient to begin your career, it’s recommended that you pursue a degree in a field related to pest management. This will allow you to gain a more in-depth understanding of the pests that you’ll be working with, as well as the methods for controlling them. This will also help you to advance your career in the industry.

To get started, you should consider seeking out employment opportunities with local pest control companies. This will allow you to gain valuable experience while pursuing your licensure and certification. In addition, many employers offer on-the-job training for new hires.

Once you have the necessary qualifications, you should seek out state-specific licensure and certification. Licensing and certification requirements vary by state, but most require a minimum of a high school diploma or equivalent. In some cases, you may need to pass a written exam covering pest control principles, safety, and state regulations. You can find licensure and certification information on your state’s pesticide regulatory agency website.

After completing the required education and training, you can apply for a pesticide applicator’s license. This license will allow you to use pesticides in commercial and industrial buildings. You can also apply for a residential pesticide applicator’s license, which allows you to use pesticides in single-family homes.

While working as an exterminator is a physically demanding job, it offers a lot of opportunities for advancement and growth. In addition, you can enjoy a sense of accomplishment in knowing that you are helping to protect people and their property from harmful pests. Moreover, many exterminators choose to work part-time, which can be ideal for individuals who have other commitments or family obligations.

Work Environment

Those who work as an exterminator can expect to be exposed to a wide range of environments, including indoor and outdoor areas. They often work independently, but may also have to collaborate with other workers on larger projects. In addition, they may be required to operate vehicles and other equipment as part of their duties.

Generally, an exterminator’s job is not considered stressful, and many people enjoy their careers as pest control technicians. However, a number of factors can influence an individual’s job satisfaction, including the ability to meet deadlines and the level of time pressure they experience. Additionally, being organized can have a positive impact on an exterminator’s career satisfaction.


The salary of an exterminator can vary widely depending on the level of experience and expertise. An entry-level exterminator may earn less than a mid-level technician or senior exterminator, but as they gain more experience and build up a solid reputation, their earning potential will increase. It is also possible to make more money by specializing in specific pest control methods, such as rodent extermination or termite extermination. Providing add-on services such as wildlife removal and preventive pest control measures can also boost an exterminator’s earning potential.

A career as an exterminator is a rewarding one, as it allows you to help people maintain clean and healthy living environments. However, the nature of this job is not always the most comfortable and requires physical stamina to stand or crouch for long periods of time. Moreover, the use of chemicals can be dangerous to humans and animals. Therefore, it is important to take safety precautions while working as an exterminator.

Having strong interpersonal and communication skills can be beneficial for the career of an exterminator, as it will help you to communicate with your clients effectively and explain the process of pest removal. In addition, excellent customer service can help you to build relationships with your clients, which will increase the chances of getting repeat business and referrals.

It is also important to have good bookkeeping skills, as an exterminator will need to keep accurate records of their hours worked and pest control techniques implemented. Furthermore, you will need to maintain a detailed inventory of all the chemicals and equipment that you have in your possession. Finally, if you are interested in working as an exterminator, it is essential to have a valid driver’s license and a reliable vehicle to transport yourself to and from work.

If you are looking for a job as an exterminator, it is best to research available positions and compare the salaries offered by different employers before making a decision. It is also recommended to visit the website of your local job board to find out about current employment opportunities in your area.

How to Plan a Successful Bathroom Remodel

Bathroom Remodeling Richmond VA is one of the best returns on investment you can get for your home. Whether it’s fixing mold and mildew or updating to a smart design, the improvements you make will improve functionality, safety and aesthetics.

Bathroom Remodeling

Labor costs can run up the bill, especially if you rework the layout. Sticking with the original footprint can save you thousands.

Bathroom layouts can vary wildly depending on how the space is used. A family bathroom with a bathtub and shower needs a different layout than a guest bath or powder room. Think about who will be using the space and how often. A bathroom that is occupied by two people at the same time, for example, requires double vanities.

One of the best ways to increase the functionality of a bathroom is to add a sink. If you’re not ready to invest in a complete remodel that includes moving the plumbing, adding a sink is an easy and affordable option.

Another way to increase the functionality of a bathroom is with a double-sink vanity. This allows more than one person to use the space at the same time, and can be ideal for family bathrooms or guest baths.

The bathroom layout above uses efficient spacing to maximize floor space. A large shower visually balances the vanity and the toilet is placed on a wall that provides sufficient room for the door to open. This arrangement also provides a spot for a cabinet, which increases storage and counter space. This type of layout is particularly good for resale homes since it can accommodate families and guests at the same time.


When planning a bathroom remodel, it is important to understand the difference between remodeling and renovating. While many homeowners use the terms interchangeably, a professional remodeler will tell you that there is a big difference.

A renovation is a project that improves what already exists. This includes cosmetic changes like a new vanity, countertop, and tile. It also means replacing an old tub or shower with a new one. A renovation may also include removing asbestos or lead paint, as these are health and safety issues.

Bathroom renovations often increase resale value and are an investment in your home. When considering a renovation, consider your lifestyle, family size and needs. You should also consider your aesthetic preferences and what is popular in your neighborhood.

If you are living in a co-op or condo, make sure you check your alteration agreement for rules on construction. A permit and building board approvals will most likely be needed. Depending on the scope of the work, a permit can take a few weeks to get. Sweeten can assist in obtaining the necessary permits and board approvals on your behalf. It is also a good idea to remove or cover any valuables before construction starts.


Electrical and lighting work is another important aspect of any bathroom remodel. It is a must-do component that needs to be completed according to local standards and regulations.

There are many different options available for this part of the remodeling project. For example, you can choose recessed lights for your bathroom to make it brighter. You can also install dimmers to control the level of brightness.

You should also pay attention to the power capacity of your electrical circuits before adding many new appliances. Going over that capacity can lead to a short circuit and, in worst cases, a fire.

Electricity and water do not mix, so it is essential to follow proper safety codes when installing a bathroom. For example, you should have a GFCI outlet in the bathroom to stop electrical shocks. It is also necessary to fit all outlets with grounding wires.

When choosing an electrician for your bathroom remodel, ask for references and check their portfolio. You should also assess their communication skills and professionalism. This will help you find someone who can complete your bathroom remodel project skillfully and quickly. It is important to choose an experienced and licensed electrician to ensure that all electrical and lighting work is up to code.


In addition to changing the layout, a bathroom remodel often involves changes to lighting and ventilation. Vanity lights, recessed downlights, and other fixtures provide a modern look to your space, while providing light for a variety of tasks. Some can also be equipped with smart features to offer even more options for control and scheduling.

Whether you want your bathroom to make a statement or maintain a more classic design, there are a wide range of styles to choose from. Some homeowners like to mix and match, while others may prefer a more consistent aesthetic that boosts resale value.

Flush mount ceiling lights are a great choice for a sleek, minimal style in washrooms. They are easy to install and give a bright, open feel to the room. Many are available with a frosted glass option, which helps to soften the light. For a more modern touch, opt for flush mounts that have an industrial metal appearance or are decorated with decorative bulbs. They are ideal for updating an old bathroom or for a quick, affordable upgrade to a newer home. Some of these bathroom lights also have a built-in humidity and motion sensor to help improve energy efficiency and reduce unnecessary usage.


A great way to bring a new style to your bathroom is to update the flooring. This is one of the largest remodeling items in the space and can have a large impact on the final look and feel of the room.

If you want a natural finish, stone is an excellent choice. Marble, travertine and slate offer a luxurious, classic finish to your bathroom. However, this material is often quite slippery and requires regular sealing to protect it from moisture damage.

Vinyl is a popular option for a bathroom remodel. The WPC and SPC vinyl products (which are available in planks or square tile) have a rigid core made from wood polymer compounds and protected by a wear layer, making them more resistant to scratching than other waterproof options such as hardwood or stone. Vinyl is also much more affordable than stone and wood floors.

Cork is another option for a modern look with added comfort underfoot. This eco-friendly material is harvested from the bark of cork oak trees and provides a water-resistant surface that feels soft underfoot. It also adds a unique aesthetic to your bathroom and is a good choice for homeowners that prioritize sustainability in their home design.


Cabinets offer a lasting storage solution and add to the overall look of your bathroom. They can make it easier to start and end your day in a comfortable and organised manner. When paired alongside aspects such as good lighting and attractive mirrors, cabinets can transform an ordinary bathroom into a unique home pillar.

Before choosing a bathroom cabinet, take inventory of what you need to store and how much space is available in the room. Then, calculate the size of the ideal cabinet by measuring your bathroom’s height, length and width carefully. It is also important to account for the door swing, shower unit and the natural flow of traffic when considering the placement of the cabinet.

Lastly, you will want to consider the budget. There are many options when it comes to bathroom cabinets, including RTA (ready-to-assemble), stock and custom-made cabinets. RTA cabinets are the least expensive, but they are also lower quality and may require frequent replacements or repairs. Stock cabinets are the next step up in price and quality, but they still don’t offer a variety of styles or materials. Custom-made cabinets are more expensive but come with a guarantee. They are made to measure and will be the best fit for your bathroom.


The fixtures installed in a bathroom play a huge role in the overall aesthetic and ambiance. The faucets, sinks, toilets, showers and bathtubs all add to the design and create a specific style for the space. This is why selecting the right bathroom fixtures and fittings is so important to ensure your remodel is a success.

The selection of fixtures can be a daunting task with so many options available. It’s best to assess your needs and preferences before deciding which products will be right for your remodel. Think about your desired aesthetic, functionality requirements and durability. Also, consider the cost of your project and budget when selecting fixtures and fittings.

When it comes to choosing a finish for the fixtures, it’s important that they match or complement other finishes in the room like tile colors and cabinetry. However, don’t be afraid to mix and match for added visual interest.

Lastly, when selecting vanity lighting, consider the direction of light. Are you going to want the lights to direct up (which will provide more task lighting) or down, directing the light onto your face for makeup application? This decision should be made prior to the electrician roughing in the lines for the lighting.

Pest Management Basics

Pests are unwanted organisms (insects, fungi, nematodes, weeds, or vertebrates) that damage plants and/or property. Pests may be continuous or sporadic.

Effective pest management requires careful monitoring and evaluation. It relies on long-term prevention techniques including biological control, habitat manipulation, change of cultural practices, and use of resistant plant varieties. When pesticides are used, they are selected and applied according to established guidelines. Contact Armis Pest Management now!

When pest populations reach unacceptable levels, IPM programs use a combination of strategies to manage them. These include physical, cultural, biological, and chemical controls. The University of California Statewide IPM Program defines IPM as “an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant varieties.”

A key component of IPM is monitoring pests to determine the type and severity of the problem. This involves regular scouting to accurately identify the pest and its population level. It also includes assessing and considering economic or aesthetic injury thresholds (the point at which action should be taken). Once the pests have been identified, treatment options can be selected from a set of preventive or curative management tactics. Chemical treatments are only used if all other prevention and control tactics have been exhausted.

Preventive IPM measures prioritize hindering pests from entering or establishing themselves in an area. This can be done by denying them the food, shelter, or proper temperature they require to survive and thrive. This can be achieved by removing weeds, mulching, preventing the growth of desirable plants, avoiding excessive watering, and implementing soil rotation and other methods.

Biological IPM measures utilize predators and parasitoids to keep pests at bay without the need for chemicals. This can be a highly effective and sustainable option, but it requires a significant investment of time to find a suitable source for the predator or parasite, understand how and when to release them, and learn which pests they target. Once implemented, an IPM plan must be reevaluated regularly to ensure success.


Whether you are managing a garden, farm or forest, monitoring is the first step in determining what pests are present and how much damage they have caused. It also helps to determine if you need to take action at all. If the problem is limited to one or two plants, you may only need to treat them. In other cases, you might need to manage the entire ecosystem.

Regular inspections of your garden, farm or woods allows you to catch a pest infestation before it gets out of hand and prevents the need for costly treatments. If you use traps or sticky traps to monitor pests, it can help you get ahead of the curve and catch them when their populations are still low.

For example, if you are trying to control the scale insect in your trees, catching them when their numbers are low can help reduce or even eliminate their need for pesticides. Similarly, if you are trying to monitor the lilac borers, trapping them early in their life cycle before they become serious can significantly reduce the need for control.

Another benefit of monitoring is gaining information about the presence and activity of natural enemies of pests. If the population of a specific pest is declining, it is often a good indication that it is being attacked by its natural enemies. Natural enemies that are being killed by pesticides can often be restored through targeted releases of predators or parasitoids.

It is important to evaluate the results of any pest management program against its desired outcomes. If the results are not what was expected, then the program might need to be changed or eliminated altogether.


Prevention is an important step in a pest management program. It can help reduce the need for toxic chemical products and ensure technicians are using environmentally conscious practices. In addition, preventive strategies can be more cost-effective in the long run. Preventive actions can include sealing entry points, regularly inspecting a property, and providing proper waste disposal. Proper sanitation is also important to reduce the spread of pests, particularly in urban settings. Regularly cleaning and disinfecting food preparation areas can help prevent the transfer of pests from one plant to another or from a person to a food source.

Many natural forces influence pest populations. Climate, for example, affects the growth of plants and the pests that feed on them. It can also affect their ability to reproduce. Other natural factors that affect pests include predatory organisms, parasitoids, and disease pathogens. Predators and parasitoids can greatly reduce pest numbers by eating them or destroying them from the inside. Disease pathogens can cause the death of a pest species or make it unfavorable for other organisms to host them.

Often, these natural enemies are more effective at controlling pests than are chemical methods, and they are generally safer for the environment and human beings. Sanitation can reduce the spread of pests as well by removing their food, water, and shelter sources. This can be done by improving trash handling, reducing pest harborage, and decontaminating equipment and tools before and after use. Mechanical controls such as knocking pests off of plants with a spray of water or putting them into traps can also be used to prevent their propagation.

Nonchemical methods are often the first step in preventing pest invasions and should be employed before any chemicals are used. Some nonchemical methods are cultural, involving modifying the site to make it less attractive or desirable to pests; others are physical such as spraying plants with water, growing competitive plants, and removing shelter or food sources.


Pests are kept in check in well-balanced ecosystems by their natural enemies (409). These organisms—predators, parasitoids, diseases, and herbivores—can reduce or eliminate pest populations. Unfortunately, most conventional pesticides kill these organisms along with the pests they target. Therefore, it is important to conserve and encourage these beneficial organisms when possible.

Prevention tactics include planting insectary flowers to attract predators and parasitoids; avoiding crop rotations that can expose plants to disease; and using mulch to prevent weed germination. Physical barriers like netting or screening can help discourage insect pests from entering greenhouses or other structures. Irrigation scheduling can also be used to avoid conditions favorable to disease development. NRCS works with farmers to coordinate conservation plans with Integrated Pest Management plans.

When prevention tactics are not sufficient, suppression techniques can be employed to keep pest populations at tolerable levels. This involves monitoring pest populations and assessing damage, then applying appropriate control measures to minimize or eliminate the pest population.

Suppression tactics can include reducing the number of eggs or seeds produced by the pest, increasing the rate of natural enemy-induced mortality or sterility, or applying a targeted genetic modification to the pest itself. Because most natural pest populations are regulated by density-dependence, a moderate reduction in their reproductive capacity is usually enough to cause the population to decline to a lower equilibrium level.

Biological control, also known as augmentation or classical biological control, is the introduction of natural enemies from other locations to prevent pests in crops. Examples of this approach are nematodes that suppress harmful soil grubs, and the pheromone-releasing wasp Encarsia formosa that controls greenhouse whitefly. These natural enemies are often expensive to purchase and require specialized warehousing and handling procedures.


The goal of eradication is to remove a pest population from an area entirely. Eradication is a rare goal in outdoor situations where prevention and suppression are usually the goals, but it is a common goal in enclosed spaces such as homes, schools, hospitals, office buildings, and food processing plants.

The word eradication has several meanings, depending on context: it can mean to exterminate or uproot (literally or metaphorically) an undesirable plant or animal species. It can also refer to the elimination of a disease or an infectious agent. Two diseases that have been eradicated are smallpox and rinderpest. The eradication of both of these diseases was made possible by vaccination campaigns that succeeded in eliminating the corresponding pathogens.

To achieve eradication, pesticide use should be reduced to the minimum level necessary for pest control, applied in an environmentally sound manner, and used under conditions that minimize disruption of natural enemies. This may be done by rotating crops and chemical types, using resistant varieties, reducing the amount of water used to produce a crop, avoiding the use of fertilizers that can increase pest problems, manipulating mating or host-finding behavior with pheromones or other synthetic compounds, and using physical controls such as traps, weed barriers, steam sterilization of soil, or insect screens.

Eradication is often difficult to achieve, particularly when a pest has been introduced into an environment that does not have naturally occurring predators or parasitoids to keep the population in check. Many pests, such as gypsy moths and Japanese beetles, can not be managed with biological control methods because they do not have natural predators to maintain populations in balance with the plants they attack.